Brazil's competition watchdog on Monday fined Alstom, Bombardier and nine other companies 535 million reais (around $140 million) for illegally colluding on tenders for building metro lines and suburban trains. The companies belonged to a "cartel" that distorted at least 26 tenders between 1999 and 2013 in four Brazilian states, the Administrative Council for Economic Defense (CADE) said. Their objective was to "divide the market, fix prices, adjust conditions, advantages and modes of participation of companies in the tenders," CADE said. Fines for the 11 companies, which also included Spain's CAF and Japan's Mitsui, totaled 515.6 million reais plus 19.5 million reais for 42 managers. Alstom, which was considered to be one of the leaders of the cartel, has been banned from participating in any tender process in Brazil's rail sector for five years. Alstom and Canada's Bombardier also have been barred from receiving public subsidies or tax exemptions for the same period. Germany's Siemens was also a member of the cartel, but it avoided punishment after signing a "leniency agreement" with Brazilian authorities. The fines could be subject to appeal. Alstom Brazil said it would "examine in due course the legal provisions" open to it. Bombardier said it had "fully cooperated with investigators and would continue to do so."
ラガルドBBAのフィンテックの影の側面に光を当てる講演ですって。 原文 "China’s technology industry is a prime example of this trade-off between benefits and challenges,” said Lagarde. "Over the last five years, technology growth in China has been extremely successful and allowed millions of new entrants to benefit from access to financial products and the creation of high-quality jobs. But it has also led to two firms controlling more than 90% of the mobile payments market.”This presents "a unique systemic challenge" to financial stability and efficiency, she said.9 機械訳 ラガルド氏は、「中国の技術産業は利益と課題の間のトレードオフの好例である」と語った。 「過去5年間で中国の技術成長は非常に成功し、何百万もの新規参入企業が金融商品への アクセスから恩恵を受けるようになりました。そして質の高い仕事の創出。しかし、 それはまた2つの会社がモバイル決済市場の90％以上を支配することにつながりました。」 これは財政の安定性と効率性に対する「独自の体系的な挑戦」を提示している、と彼女は言った。